# Mathematics: Course Descriptions

### High School Mathematics Courses (2 semesters: 1 credit)

White Oak’s college-preparatory (CP) mathematics courses are listed below. The skills addressed at each level are in accordance with the MA Curriculum Frameworks and also correspond to the Common Core Curriculum.

**Essentials of Algebra I**

In this college-preparatory course, students lay the groundwork for higher mathematics as preparation for the MCAS. Students focus on expanding their understanding of the real number system; interpreting and writing algebraic expressions; performing operations on polynomials; understanding, creating, representing graphically, and solving equations and inequalities; interpreting, constructing, comparing, and analyzing introductory functions; and interpreting, summarizing, and representing data and linear models. An emphasis upon language skills is the foundation for content exploration, and students work on developing skills in the areas of number identification, numerical sequencing, computations, mathematical language, and strategies for organization and independent work.

**Essentials of Geometry**

In this CP course, students lay the groundwork for higher mathematics and prepare to take the MCAS. Students explore transformations in the plane, make geometric constructions, use measurement units and a variety of formulas to define dimensions, and study congruence, similarity, right triangles, and circles. They also focus on expressing geometric properties with equations, solving problems with equations, and modeling geometric concepts. An emphasis upon language skills is the foundation for content exploration, and students work on developing skills in the areas of number identification, numerical sequencing, computations, mathematical language, and strategies for organization and independent work.

**Essentials of Algebra II**

In this CP course, emphasis will be on practicing and expanding algebraic topics learned in Algebra I to enable students to use mathematics as a modeling language for real-life problems. Students will perform arithmetic operations with polynomials, interpret the structure of rational expressions, and write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems. Students will also focus on representing and solving equations and inequalities graphically and interpret, analyze, and build functions that model relationships between two quantities. They will work to construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems. Trigonometric functions and studies on statistics and probability will be introduced and explored as time permits. An emphasis upon language skills provides the foundation for content exploration, and to that end, students will focus on developing skills in the areas of number identification, numerical sequencing, computations, mathematical language, and strategies for organization and independent work.

**College-Preparatory Integrated Math**

Integrated Math, typically taken senior year, is a synthesis of algebraic and geometric concepts and its real-life applications. Given college-level placement assessments, students will identify areas of personal challenge and focus on guided spiraling review of targeted mathematical topics in arithmetic, algebra, functions, geometry, statistics, and probability. They will explore previously addressed mathematical topics to greater depths, extending their studies and working to strengthen and expand their critical thinking and problem-solving skills. An emphasis upon language skills provides the foundation for content exploration, and to that end, students will focus on developing skills in the areas of number identification, numerical sequencing, computations, mathematical language, and strategies for organization and independent work.

### Grades 4 – 8 General Mathematics Courses

**Pre-Algebra**

Students focus on the ‘big ideas’ of algebra and bridging the gap between arithmetic and algebra. They will investigate ratios and proportional relationships, review and refine their abilities to compute with rational numbers, and focus upon solving real-life and mathematical problems by utilizing numerical and algebraic expressions and equations. They will work with integers and exponents, analyze and solve linear equations, and define and evaluate functions. As time permits, they will also focus on understanding and solving problems utilizing geometric concepts: congruence and similarity, the Pythagorean Theorem, and volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres. Students will draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures. In addition, studies in statistics and probability will be covered. An emphasis upon language skills provides the foundation for content exploration, and to that end, students will focus on developing skills in the areas of number identification, numerical sequencing, computations, mathematical language, and strategies for organization and independent work.

**Basic Mathematics**

Students will focus on performing the four operations with whole numbers, build familiarity with factors and multiples, and identify and define patterns. Base Ten place value and operations with multi-digit numbers, and understanding and operations with fractions, decimals, and percents will all be key areas of focus. Students will also work to solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements. They will focus on representing and interpreting data, drawing and identifying lines and angles, and work to solve one-variable equations and inequalities. Students will focus on solving real-world and mathematical problems involving area and volume and explore basic concepts in statistics and probability. An emphasis upon language skills provides the foundation for content exploration, and to that end, students focus on developing skills in the areas of number identification, numerical sequencing, computations, mathematical language, and strategies for organization and independent work.